The enlargement of the parathyroid glands is defined as parathyroid cancer. The tumor cells increase the secretion of the hormones from the gland and cause hyperparathyroidism. The tumor cells have usually a benign character. They are called adenoma. It is a rather uncommon disease. In parathyroid cancer, which causes hyperparathyroidism, the treatment of choice is surgery. Before surgery, the localization of the gland with the ultrasonographic examination and parathyroid MIBI scintigraphy is important for both the patient and the physician. In rare cases, the mass of parathyroid cancer may emerge in the chest cavity. In these patients, the rib cage should be opened during surgery. If surgical intervention is performed by an experienced physician and team, patients will not have problems related to aesthetics. The intervention can be carried out through a 2-2.5cm-long incision.
In hypoparathyroidism, the activity of the parathyroid glands is under the normal limits. Consequently, the hormone and calcium levels iecrease iin the blood. As a result of the low calcium levels, patients complain from the numbness in the hands and lips. It may also cause muscle cramps in some patients. The removal of the parathyroid glands or their damage during the thyroidectomy is one of the reasons for hypoparathyroidism. Congenital absence of the parathyroid glands, impairment of the glandular due to certain factors may also cause hypoparathyroidism. The main goal of the treatment is the restoration of the blood calcium levels. In emergency cases, calcium solutions are injected via intravenous route. These patients have to use calcium and vitamin D supplements for their entire life.
This disease develops as a result of the overactivity of the parathyroid glands. Thus, the glands produce too many hormones, which increase the blood levels of calcium. Bone loss is triggered by the hormone. The amount of calcium, which should be excreted by the kidneys, increases. This may lead to the development of kidney stones. Enlargement and benign tumors of the parathyroid gland are among the factors causing this disease. The enlargement of the parathyroid glands is usually encountered in patients with kidney failure. During the diagnosis and treatment, the general health condition, medical history of the patient, characteristics of the disease, compliance with the treatment and expectations of the patient should be considered. Surgery is one of the treatment options. Surgery is based on the removal of the overactive parathyroid gland.